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Apocalypse of Daniel

Ninth Century A.D.

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G. T. Zervos writes: "The date of the present form of our apocalypse can be determined with some precision by identifying the last historical event to which it makes reference. This appears to be the transfer of the kingdom from Constantinople to Rome (7:14), which any with reasonable certainty be interpreted as an allusion to the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor in Rome on Christmas Day, A.D. 800. This interpretation is supported by the description of the last Byzantine ruler before this event took place as a woman (6:10f.), who corresponds to the historical figure of the Empress Irene, sole ruler of Byzantium from 797 to 802. It may therefore be concluded that the Apocalypse of Daniel was in all probability written between the early months of 801, allowing time for the news of Charlesmagne's coronation to reach Byzantium, and the end of Irene's reign on October 31, 802." (The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, vol. 1, p. 756)

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